Are you a creditor in a bankruptcy case? Did you receive a Notice from the Bankruptcy Court advising you that there are funds available to pay creditors in a case and alerting you to complete and file a Proof of Claim? If so, then the Notice would have also included a blank Proof of Claim form for you to complete and file with the Bankruptcy Court. The Proof of Claim form is specific and comprehensive and may require detailed attachments depending on the type of claim you have against the Debtor. There are also time constraints involved in the process as well. The Bankruptcy Court will set a deadline for the filing of such claims. The deadline is called the “bar date”. Claims filed after the bar date are not paid except in certain very limited situations and only if the bankruptcy court expressly permits them to be paid—more about this in a bit.
In consumer bankruptcy cases (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 cases) you must file a claim timely (by the bar date) in order to be paid. The process is somewhat different in Chapter 11 cases. A creditor does not need to file a claim if three conditions are met. First, the Debtor must not have listed the debt on its bankruptcy schedules as “disputed, contingent or unliquidated”. Second, the creditor must agree with the amount that the debtor has listed as due and owing on these bankruptcy schedules. Third, the creditor must agree with the Debtor’s classification of the type of claim—such as secured, unsecured or priority—in the bankruptcy schedules. If any (or all) of these conditions are absent in a Chapter 11 case then the creditor must file a claim for the full amount which is owed by the Debtor and set forth the appropriate classification (secured, unsecured or priority) in the claim.
I’ve been a bankruptcy attorney for over 25 years and I’m aware of several situations where creditors have left “money on the table” by not filing a claims in bankruptcy cases despite receiving notice in Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 consumer bankruptcy cases that the Bankruptcy Trustee is holding funds which are available to pay creditors. In fact, in many of these consumer cases, the Trustee ends up with a surplus case and will often seek to make contact with creditors listed in the bankruptcy schedules to solicit them to get a claim filed. Likewise, in Chapter 11 cases, I’ve seen several situations where only a small number of creditors have filed claims when the Debtor has proposed to make a significant payment to creditors with claims in a certain class set forth in the Chapter 11 Plan.
The Proof of Claim form requires creditors to choose the classification of the claim (secured, unsecured or priority) as well as the amount that the Debtor owes the creditor as of the date of the filing of the bankruptcy case. For secured accounts, such as a mortgage or lien on personal property or a vehicle, this can require some detailed accounting to property set forth interest, late charges, attorney’s fees and other charges as well as accrued escrow items. If this accounting is incorrect, then the Trustee or Debtor can object to the claim. Again, more about that in a bit. The Proof of Claim will also need to include copies of supporting documents evidencing the claim such as the loan documents (promissory notes, contracts), the security documents (security agreements, mortgages) and other documents such as judgments, garnishments and so forth. Failure to include the loan documents will likely result in an objection to the claim by an interested party so it is very important that the Proof of Claim be filed with these documents attached.
Claims that are filed after the bar date will likely draw an objection by the Trustee or the Debtor. Obviously, the best way to avoid this is to make sure that the claim is filed on time. The fact that a claim was filed late may completely invalidate it and prevent it from being paid. However, a creditor with a late-filed claim is not completely out of luck. If a creditor files a claim late and there is an objection filed to it, then the creditor can argue that the failure to timely file the claim was excusable. The burden, however, is on the creditor to show excusable neglect and it this is often a difficult burden for the creditor to meet. There are also differences in the operation of the excusable neglect standard depending on whether the bankruptcy case is a Chapter 7 or 13 consumer case or a Chapter 11 case. A creditor facing this issue will need to discuss how best to address the situation with a bankruptcy attorney.
A creditor’s claim may draw an objection from the Debtor of Trustee for any number of reasons. For example, the objection to the claim might dispute the amount that the creditor alleges is owed or dispute the creditor’s classification of the claim as secured, unsecured or priority. The objection might dispute the validity of the claim if there are no supporting documents to evidence the claim or if the debt is believed to be uncollectable due to being barred by the applicable statute of limitations for the type of claim that the creditor holds against the debtor.
A creditor can minimize the chance of an objection being filed to its claim by taking steps to ensure that the claim lists the correct amount owed, lists the correct classification of the type of claim, contains legible copies of the documents evidencing the claim and is signed and timely filed with the Bankruptcy Court. If a creditor is facing an objection to its claim then it should contact a bankruptcy attorney to develop a strategy for tackling the issue as oftentimes it is possible for a creditor to fight the objection and get its claim allowed and paid in the case.
Brad Hissing is a Bankruptcy Attorney with over 26 years of experience in representing creditors, Trustees and other parties in bankruptcy cases. He has extensive experience in Creditors Rights and Insolvency matters in both consumer and Chapter 11 commercial cases. He can be reached at BradH@whhlaw.com or by phone at (813) 676-9075.